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 Graphite for Manufacturing Shaped Parts


Introduction
Moscow Electrode Plant is the first and oldest in Russia enterprise of the sort founded in 1933 to manufacture graphite products.
Graphite and carbon electrodes for electric steel melting furnaces, anodes and bottom blocks for aluminium electrolyzers, graphite blocks and rods for nuclear reactors were first produced at Moscow Electrode Plant.
At present, the plant has been producing all types of grphites: large-, medium- and fine-grained, as well as graphite-based composites such as carbon-carbon materials and filled graphites. They are used to manufacture products for consumer industries such as ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemistry and chemical analysis, machine building, semiconductor, nuclear, electrical and radio engineering, glass, quarts and synthetic diamonds industries, aviation, etc.
The use of graphite products in various industries under highly diversified operating conditions dictates specific features of graphites produced. Actually, for each application field specific graphite materials have been developed with regard to the performance requirements.
These graphites are generally produced from petroleum and coal tar pitches. A basic process flow chart incorporates the following operations:
   1. Petroleum coke preparation (calcinating up to 1300° C, grinding,
       screening, milling).
   2. Mixing coke and pitch of different size fractions in a certain
       ratio typical for the graphite grade.
   3. Molding the mixture by mold pressing or by extrusion to press a preform.
   4. Baking the preform at 800 to 1200° C.
   5. Pitch impregnation of the preform in the autoclave.
   6. Repeated baking the preform at 800 to 1200° C.
   7. Graphitizing the preform at 2400 to 3000° C.

Depending on the material function and desired performance characteristics, various combinations of the above operations are employed in its production. For example, petroleum coke may be used both in calcined and noncalcined, the number of baking cycles may vary from 1 to 5, with coal tar pitch, salt solutions, pyrolytic carbon, etc. Being used as impregnantes. By modifying basic graphite grades, properties are attained to meet specific needs (Modification is taken to mean a coal tar pitch impregnation, pyolytic carbon densification, and aqueous salt solution impregnation of a preform). High-temperature effects combined with a controlled active gaseous atmosphere allow a required purity level to be obtained.
Graphite materials produced by Moscow Electrode Plant feature high electrical and thermal conductivity, erosion and thermal resistance, strength increase with service temperature, good machinability. By their purity level, they are comparable to graphites produced by leading companies in the world.
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