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 Graphite for Manufacturing Shaped Parts


Graphite characteristics

Electrical Conductivity
Graphite exhibits good electrical conductivity. As temperature is raised, its electrical conductivity increases. As a consequence, graphite unlike metals has a negative temperature resistance coefficient.

Thermal Conductivity
Thermal conductivity of graphite is higher than of most metals, being decreased with temperature. Thermal conductivity depends on the final heat-treatment temperature of graphite.

Thermal Resistance
Graphite does not melt but sublimates at 3900 K and withstands sharp temperature drops.

Thermal Expansion
Coefficient of thermal expansion of graphite is largely influenced by its structure. Accordingly, this property is specific to each graphite grade and depends on the material anisotropy and temperature.

Wettability
Graphite is not wetted with most molten metals and glasses.

Oxidation susceptibility
An appreciable oxidation of graphite in air starts at 750 K. The onset oxidation temperature can be somewhat different for different graphite grades depending on the precursor nature, mineral impurities content and heat-treatment temperature. Graphite is insoluble in organic and inorganic solvents, resistant to many acids, alkaline and salt solutions.

Mechanical Strength
Tensile, compressive and bending strength of graphite increases with temperature up to 2700 C and then begins to drop. This behavior contrasts with that of other materials, graphite strength at 2700 C is about twice as high as at room temperature.

Anisotropy of Physical Properties
Physical properties of graphite depend on the coke grain orientation and molding technique.
Extruded graphites feature clearly defined properties anisotropy with their grains being aligned normal to the moulding axis.
Graphites produced by mold pressing and isostatic pressing are more isotropic then extruded graphites.

Purity
All graphites contain in their composition, in a greater or lesser content, mineral impurities (ash).
Special graphite purification technology enables the ash content to be lowered down to 10.4 to 10.5 wt. % from 0.5 wt. % in the precursor materials.

Machinability
Graphite is readily machined, due to its properties and structure it can be made into intricate shapes to small tolerances and high accuracy. Such combination of good properties inherent in this material has predetermined its extremely wide use. PhysThese materials have resulted from the work of researchers and production personnel. An intimate knowledge of the material properties, permanent striving for technological progress and a long-standing experience in the graphite production provide the development of new applications thereof. The development of novel products or their applications involves a careful analysis, in conjunction with a customer, of all requirements that are to be met by the product.

Here the decisive factors are as follows:
    precursor materials selection;
    process design;
    elaboration of control parameters for product testing procedure
       to be used by a customer;
    industrial adoption of product;
    perfection of product and process thereof based on the commercial
       production data.

A close relationship between the manufacturer and the customer is of major benefit to the latter, it provides a fruitful cooperation directed at the product quality improvement and ensures further technical and economic growth of the production.

Table 1
  Properties Graphite grade
*GMS
**
*OPG
**
*PPG
**
*PPG-O
**-
*SGM
**
Density, g/cm3, Min.
1,65 1,76 1,70 1,70 1,56
Porosity,%, max. 26 24 24 24 30
Ultimate compressive
strength, MPa
27,4 36,2 35 35 22,5
Ultimate bending strength, MPa 9,8 16,7 16,7 16,7 10,8
Ultimate tensile
strength, MPa
5,5 10 8,9 8,9 5,6
Electrical resistivity,
Ohm mm2/m
11 11 13 9 11
Elastic modulus,
N/mm2
5300 8900 6800 6800  
CTE, 10-6 1/ K 4,45 3,7 4,5 4,5 4,45
Thermal conductivity,
W/m K
120 190 140 140  
Molding technique extrusion extrusion extrusion extrusion extrusion
Ash content, % 0,03 0,02 0,03 0,02 0,02
Blank dimensions,
mm, not more than
 4501500
40021500
 4501500
40021500
 4501500
40021500
 602600   521900

Note: Graphite grade designations are given in both * - English and ** - Russian versions.

Table 1 (continued)
  Properties Graphite grade
*MG
**
*MG-1
**-1
*MPG-6
**-6
Density, g/cm3, Min.
1,50 1,65 1,65
Porosity,%, max. 30 24 18
Ultimate compressive
strength, MPa
19,6 34,3 73,6
Ultimate bending
strength, MPa
8,8 11,7 34,3
Ultimate tensile
strength, MPa
4,5 6,2 25,0
Electrical resistivity,
Ohm mm2/m
18 13 15
Elastic modulus,
N/mm2
5500 6800 10000
CTE, 10-6 1/ K 4,5 4,5 5,3
Thermal conductivity,
W/m K
65 85 95
Molding technique Pressing Pressing Pressing
Ash content, % 0,03 0,03 0,02
Blank dimensions,
mm, not more than
 260380
 215400
 260380
 215400
190x140x80
85x85x160
 345x100

Impurity Content in Graphites of High Purity (wt %, max)
Table 2

  Impurity High-pure graphites of OSCh-7-3 (-7-3) purity class
*GMS
**
*MG
**
*MG-1
**-1
*OPG
**
*PPG
**
*UGLI
**
Silicon
510-4 510-4 510-4 510-4 510-4 510-4
Iron 310-5 310-5 310-5 310-5 310-5 310-5
Aluminium 310-5 310-5 310-5 310-5 310-5 310-5
Magnesium 310-5 310-5 310-5 310-5 310-5 310-5
Boron 110-5 110-5 110-5 110-5 110-5 110-5
Copper 110-5 110-5 110-5 110-5 110-5 110-5
Marganese 110-5 110-5 110-5 110-5 110-5 110-5
Titanium - - - - - -
Sulfur - - - - - -
Chlorine - - - - - -
Blank
dimensions,
mm, max.
 4501500
40021500
 260380
 215400
 260380
 215400
 4501500
40021500
  4501500
40021500
  6200


2 ():
   -7-2
3

610-3 610-3 610-3 610-3
610-3 610-3 610-3 610-3
110-4 110-4 110-4 110-4
310-5 310-5 310-5 310-5
210-4 210-4 210-4 210-4
110-5 110-5 110-5 110-5
110-5 110-5 110-5 110-5
- - - -
- - - -
- - - -
,
,
 4501500
40021500
 4501500
40021500
  4501500
40021500
  6200
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